Section 30. Further details concerning reasons for persecution under section 28, first paragraph, (a)

When applying section 28, first paragraph, (a), the following shall be taken into account when assessing the reasons for persecution:
  1. a.
    Religion shall in particular be deemed to include
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      religious beliefs and other life stances,
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      participation in, or intended abstention from, formal worship in private or in public, whether alone or in community with others,
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      other acts or expressions of opinion related to the religion or life stance of the person concerned,
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      forms of individual or collective conduct dictated by religious or life stance-based convictions,
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      freedom to convert to another religion or a different life stance.
  2. b.
    Nationality shall not be restricted to citizenship or lack thereof, but shall also include membership of a group defined by its cultural, ethnic or linguistic identity, its geographical or political origin or its relationship with the population of another state.
  3. c.
    A particular social group shall in particular be deemed to include a group of persons who share a characteristic other than the risk of being persecuted, and who are perceived as a group by society. The common characteristic may be innate or for other reasons immutable, or otherwise consist of a manner or conviction that is so fundamental to identity, conscience or the exercise of human rights that a person cannot be expected to renounce it. Former victims of human trafficking shall be regarded as members of a particular social group.
  4. d.
    Political opinion shall in particular be deemed to include opinions about the persecutors or their policies or methods, regardless of whether the applicant has acted on such opinion.
In the assessment of whether a well-founded fear of persecution exists, it is immaterial whether the applicant possesses the characteristics or holds the opinion that leads to persecution, see section 28, first paragraph, (a), provided that the perpetrator of the persecution attributes such a characteristic or opinion to the applicant.